Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie --from


Andrew Carnegie (November 25, 1835-August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist. He was born in Dunfermline, Scotland. In a 1840, Carnegie's father moved him and his family to the United States, due to economic hardships. His first job was at age 13 , as a textile mill worker. The hours were long and the job was hard. By 1853, he became superintendent of a telegraph company in Pittsburgh. He invested in the Iron and Steel industry during the civil war which ultimately made Carnegie very wealthy. He was the leader of the huge expansion of the steel industry. He profited greatly from this line of work and made many connections and partnerships to better his business(es). He later retired from the steel industry to pursue philanthropy in order to better the world.

Rise of the Steel Revolution

One of the primary things that made Carnegie a 'Game Changer', was his role in the Steel Industry. Carnegie established his first steel company, Carnegie Steel. In his manufacturing and production, he adopted the Bessemer Process, which was essentially, creating cheap, high quality steel. Due to this, steel was way more desired for use than iron. Carnegie also made use of vertical integration, which is described as a “style of management control.”. “It united companies in a supply chain through one common owner.” By 1889, Carnegie Steel became the largest steel companies in the world.

Paying It Forward- To Peace

The second thing that made Carnegie a 'Game Changer', was through his role as a philanthropist. He made the transition to philanthropy in 1901 and spent the last of his years using his vast wealth to invest in education and the welfare of society. He ended up becoming the second richest man in the world. He donated a lot of money to establish many of the libraries, museum, and institutions of education that we know of today. Public libraries, or Carnegie libraries were built and established across the globe in places such as the UK and here in the U.S. In 1885, he gave $500,000 to Pittsburgh, and by that time, there 3,000 libraries built total. In 1901, Carnegie founded Carnegie Institute of Technology (C.I.T.), which is now Carnegie Mellon University. Later, in 1910, Carnegie created the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace for peace promotion. He continued to pursue the endeavor for world peace and resumed making many more contributions until his death in 1919.

Andrew Carnegie's Birthplace in Dunfermline, Scotland --from

The Bessemer Converter, Design Schematcs --courtesy of